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Myers–Briggs Type Indicator – Dream-Inc.eu

 

The Myers–Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is an introspective self-report questionnaire indicating differing psychological preferences in how people perceive the world and make decisions.

The original versions of the MBTI were constructed by two Americans, Katharine Cook Briggs and her daughter Isabel Briggs Myers. The MBTI is based on the conceptual theory proposed by Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung, who had speculated that people experience the world using four principal psychological functions – sensation, intuition, feeling, and thinking – and that one of these four functions is dominant for a person most of the time.The four categories are Introversion/Extraversion, Sensing/Intuition, Thinking/Feeling, Judging/Perception. Each person is said to have one preferred quality from each category, producing 16 unique types. Most of the research supporting the MBTI’s validity has been produced by the Centre for Applications of Psychological Type, an organization run by the Myers-Briggs Foundation, and published in the Centre’s own journal, the Journal of Psychological Type, raising questions of independence, bias, and conflict of interest.

The MBTI was constructed for normal populations and emphasizes the value of naturally occurring differences. “The underlying assumption of the MBTI is that we all have specific preferences in the way we construe our experiences, and these preferences underlie our interests, needs, values, and motivation.”

Though the MBTI resembles some psychological theories, it is often classified as pseudoscience, especially as pertains to its supposed predictive abilities. The indicator exhibits significant scientific (psychometric) deficiencies, notably including poor validity (i.e. not measuring what it purports to measure, not having predictive power or not having items that can be generalized), poor reliability (giving different results for the same person on different occasions), measuring categories that are not independent (some dichotomous traits have been noted to correlate with each other), and not being comprehensive (due to missing neuroticism). The four scales used in the MBTI have some correlation with four of the Big Five personality traits, which are a more commonly accepted framework.

By Jake Beech - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, Link
By Jake BeechOwn work, CC BY-SA 3.0, Link

Concepts

The MBTI Manual states that the indicator “is designed to implement a theory; therefore, the theory must be understood to understand the MBTI”. Fundamental to the MBTI is the theory of psychological type as originally developed by Carl Jung.Jung proposed the existence of two dichotomous pairs of cognitive functions:

  • The “rational” (judging) functions: thinking and feeling
  • The “irrational” (perceiving) functions: sensation and intuition

Jung believed that for every person, each of the functions is expressed primarily in either an introverted or extraverted form.Based on Jung’s original concepts, Briggs and Myers developed their own theory of psychological type, described below, on which the MBTI is based. However, although psychologist Hans Eysenck called the MBTI a moderately successful quantification of Jung’s original principles as outlined in Psychological Types,he also said, “[The MBTI] creates 16 personality types which are said to be similar to Jung’s theoretical concepts. I have always found difficulties with this identification, which omits one half of Jung’s theory (he had 32 types, by asserting that for every conscious combination of traits there was an opposite unconscious one). Obviously, the latter half of his theory does not admit of questionnaire measurement, but to leave it out and pretend that the scales measure Jungian concepts is hardly fair to Jung.”In any event, both models remain hypothetical, with no controlled scientific studies supporting either Jung’s original concept of type or the Myers–Briggs variation.

Type

Jung’s typological model regards psychological type as similar to left or right handedness: people are either born with, or develop, certain preferred ways of perceiving and deciding. The MBTI sorts some of these psychological differences into four opposite pairs, or “dichotomies”, with a resulting 16 possible psychological types. None of these types is “better” or “worse”; however, Briggs and Myers theorized that people innately “prefer” one overall combination of type differences. In the same way that writing with the left hand is difficult for a right-hander, so people tend to find using their opposite psychological preferences more difficult, though they can become more proficient (and therefore behaviorally flexible) with practice and development.

The 16 types are typically referred to by an abbreviation of four letters—the initial letters of each of their four type preferences (except in the case of intuition, which uses the abbreviation “N” to distinguish it from introversion). For instance:

  • ESTJ: extraversion (E), sensing (S), thinking (T), judgment (J)
  • INFP: introversion (I), intuition (N), feeling (F), perception (P)

These abbreviations are applied to all 16 types.

Thumbnail sketches

MBTI researchers provide descriptions of people that the test classifies into a given type:

According to Myers and Briggs, ENTJ types tend to be self-driven, motivating, energetic, assertive, confident, and competitive. They generally take a big-picture view and build a long-term strategy. They typically know what they want and may mobilize others to help them attain their goals. The authors say ENTJs are often sought out as leaders due to an innate ability to direct groups of people. Unusually influential and organized, they may sometimes judge others by their own tough standards, failing to take personal needs into account.

According to the Myers-Briggs Foundation, INFJs are conscientious and morality-driven; they seek meaning in relationships, ideas, and events, with an eye toward better understanding themselves and others. The foundation says that using their intuitive skills, they develop a clear and confident vision, which they then set out to execute, aiming to better the lives of others. Like their INTJ counterparts, it describes INFJs regard problems as opportunities to design and implement creative solutions.

According to the Foundation, INFPs focus much of their energy on intense feeling and deep ethics that dominate an “inner world.” They seek an external life that keeps these values. Loyal to the people and causes important to them, INFPs spot opportunities to implement their ideals. They are curious to understand those around them, and are accepting and flexible unless someone or something threatens their values.

The Myers-Briggs Foundation says ISTJs learn best and apply themselves to subjects that they deem practical and useful, and that they bring painstaking attention to detail in their work and will not rest until a concept is fully learned or a job is well completed.

According to one career advice book, INTPs prefer to work informally with others as equals, or working alone. The authors say INTPs organize their understanding of any topic by articulating principles, and they are especially drawn to theoretical constructs. During interactions with others, if INTPs are focused on gathering information, they may seem oblivious, aloof, or even rebellious—when in fact they are concentrating on listening and understanding. According to the book, INTPs’ intuition often gives them a quick wit, especially with language. They may defuse tension through comical observations and references. They can be charming, even in their quiet reserve, and are sometimes surprised by the high esteem in which their friends and colleagues hold them.

Statistics

A 1973 study of university students in the United States found the INFP type was the most common type among students studying the fine arts and art education subjects, with 36% of fine arts students and 26% of art education students being INFPs. A 1973 study of the personality types of teachers in the United States found Intuitive-Perceptive types (ENFP, INFP, ENTP, INTP) were over-represented in teachers of subjects such as English, social studies and art, as opposed to science and mathematics, which featured more Sensing (S) and Judging (J) types. A questionnaire of 27,787 high school students suggested INFP students among them showed a significant preference for art, English and music subjects.

Attitudes: extraversion/introversion

Myers–Briggs literature uses the terms extraversion and introversion as Jung first used them. Extraversion means literally outward-turning and introversion, inward-turning. These specific definitions differ somewhat from the popular usage of the words. Extraversion is the spelling used in MBTI publications.

The preferences for extraversion and introversion are often called “attitudes”. Briggs and Myers recognized that each of the cognitive functions can operate in the external world of behavior, action, people, and things (“extraverted attitude”) or the internal world of ideas and reflection (“introverted attitude”). The MBTI assessment sorts for an overall preference for one or the other.

People who prefer extraversion draw energy from action: they tend to act, then reflect, then act further. If they are inactive, their motivation tends to decline. To rebuild their energy, extraverts need breaks from time spent in reflection. Conversely, those who prefer introversion “expend” energy through action: they prefer to reflect, then act, then reflect again. To rebuild their energy, introverts need quiet time alone, away from activity.

An extravert’s flow is directed outward toward people and objects, whereas the introvert’s is directed inward toward concepts and ideas. Contrasting characteristics between extraverted and introverted people include:

  • Extraverted are action-oriented, while introverted are thought-oriented.
  • Extraverted seek breadth of knowledge and influence, while introverted seek depth of knowledge and influence.
  • Extraverted often prefer more frequent interaction, while introverted prefer more substantial interaction.
  • Extraverted recharge and get their energy from spending time with people, while introverted recharge and get their energy from spending time alone; they consume their energy through the opposite process.

Functions: sensing/intuition and thinking/feeling

Jung identified two pairs of psychological functions:

  • Two perceiving functions: sensation (usually called sensing in MBTI writings) and intuition
  • Two judging functions: thinking and feeling

According to Jung’s typology model, each person uses one of these four functions more dominantly and proficiently than the other three; however, all four functions are used at different times depending on the circumstances. Because each function can manifest in either an extraverted or an introverted attitude, Jung’s model includes eight combinations of functions and attitudes, four of which are largely conscious and four unconscious.

Sensing and intuition are the information-gathering (perceiving) functions. They describe how new information is understood and interpreted. People who prefer sensing are more likely to trust information that is in the present, tangible, and concrete: that is, information that can be understood by the five senses. They tend to distrust hunches, which seem to come “out of nowhere”. They prefer to look for details and facts. For them, the meaning is in the data. On the other hand, those who prefer intuition tend to trust information that is less dependent upon the senses, that can be associated with other information (either remembered or discovered by seeking a wider context or pattern). They may be more interested in future possibilities. For them, the meaning is in the underlying theory and principles which are manifested in the data.

Thinking and feeling are the decision-making (judging) functions. The thinking and feeling functions are both used to make rational decisions, based on the data received from their information-gathering functions (sensing or intuition). Those who prefer thinking tend to decide things from a more detached standpoint, measuring the decision by what seems reasonable, logical, causal, consistent, and matching a given set of rules. Those who prefer feeling tend to come to decisions by associating or empathizing with the situation, looking at it ‘from the inside’ and weighing the situation to achieve, on balance, the greatest harmony, consensus and fit, considering the needs of the people involved. Thinkers usually have trouble interacting with people who are inconsistent or illogical, and tend to give very direct feedback to others. They are concerned with the truth and view it as more important.

As noted already, people who prefer thinking do not necessarily, in the everyday sense, “think better” than their feeling counterparts, in the common sense; the opposite preference is considered an equally rational way of coming to decisions (and, in any case, the MBTI assessment is a measure of preference, not ability). Similarly, those who prefer feeling do not necessarily have “better” emotional reactions than their thinking counterparts. In many cases, however, people who use thinking functions as either dominant or auxiliary tend to have more underdeveloped feeling functions, and often have more trouble with regulating and making healthy and productive decisions based on their feelings.

A diagram depicting the cognitive functions of each Myers-Briggs personality type. A type's background color represents its dominant function, and its text color represents its auxiliary function.
A diagram depicting the cognitive functions of each Myers-Briggs personality type. A type’s background color represents its dominant function, and its text color represents its auxiliary function.

Lifestyle preferences: judging/perception

Myers and Briggs added another dimension to Jung’s typological model by identifying that people also have a preference for using either the judging function (thinking or feeling) or their perceiving function (sensing or intuition) when relating to the outside world (extraversion).

Myers and Briggs held that types with a preference for judging show the world their preferred judging function (thinking or feeling). So, TJ types tend to appear to the world as logical and FJ types as empathetic. According to Myers,judging types like to “have matters settled”.

Those types who prefer perception show the world their preferred perceiving function (sensing or intuition). So, SP types tend to appear to the world as concrete and NP types as abstract. According to Myers,perceptive types prefer to “keep decisions open”.

For extraverts, the J or P indicates their dominant function; for introverts, the J or P indicates their auxiliary function. Introverts tend to show their dominant function outwardly only in matters “important to their inner worlds”.

For example: Because the ENTJ type is extraverted, the J indicates that the dominant function is the preferred judging function (extraverted thinking). The ENTJ type introverts the auxiliary perceiving function (introverted intuition). The tertiary function is sensing and the inferior function is introverted feeling.

Because the INTJ type is introverted, however, the J instead indicates that the auxiliary function is the preferred judging function (extraverted thinking). The INTJ type introverts the dominant perceiving function (introverted intuition). The tertiary function is feeling and the inferior function is extraverted sensing.

 

Format and administration

The current North American English version of the MBTI Step I includes 93 forced-choice questions (88 are in the European English version). “Forced-choice” means that a person, if possible, should choose only one of two possible answers to each question. The choices are a mixture of word pairs and short statements. Choices are not literal opposites, but chosen to reflect opposite preferences on the same dichotomy. Participants may skip questions if they feel they are unable to choose.

Using psychometric techniques, such as item response theory, the MBTI will then be scored and will attempt to identify the preference, and clarity of preference, in each dichotomy. After taking the MBTI, participants are usually asked to complete a “Best Fit” exercise (see below) and then given a readout of their Reported Type, which will usually include a bar graph and number (Preference Clarity Index) to show how clear they were about each preference when they completed the questionnaire.

During the early development of the MBTI, thousands of items were used. Most were eventually discarded because they did not have high “midpoint discrimination”, meaning the results of that one item did not, on average, move an individual score away from the midpoint. Using only items with high midpoint discrimination allows the MBTI to have fewer items on it, but still provide as much statistical information as other instruments with many more items with lower midpoint discrimination.

Additional formats

Isabel Myers had noted that people of any given type shared differences, as well as similarities. At the time of her death, she was developing a more in-depth method of measuring how people express and experience their individual type pattern.

In 1987, an advanced scoring system was developed for the MBTI. From this was developed the Type Differentiation Indicator (Saunders, 1989) which is a scoring system for the longer MBTI, Form J, which includes the 290 items written by Myers that had survived her previous item analyses. It yields 20 subscales (five under each of the four dichotomous preference scales), plus seven additional subscales for a new “Comfort-Discomfort” factor (which purportedly corresponds to the missing factor of neuroticism).

This factor’s scales indicate a sense of overall comfort and confidence versus discomfort and anxiety. They also load onto one of the four type dimensions: guarded-optimistic (also T/F), defiant-compliant (also T/F), carefree-worried (also T/F), decisive-ambivalent (also J/P), intrepid-inhibited (Also E/I), leader-follower (Also E/I), and proactive-distractible (also J/P)

Also included is a composite of these called “strain”. There are also scales for type-scale consistency and comfort-scale consistency. Reliability of 23 of the 27 TDI subscales is greater than 0.50, “an acceptable result given the brevity of the subscales” (Saunders, 1989).

In 1989, a scoring system was developed for only the 20 subscales for the original four dichotomies. This was initially known as “Form K” or the “Expanded Analysis Report”. This tool is now called the “MBTI Step II”.

Form J or the TDI included the items (derived from Myers’ and McCaulley’s earlier work) necessary to score what became known as “Step III”. (The 1998 MBTI Manual reported that the two instruments were one and the same) It was developed in a joint project involving the following organizations: The Myers-Briggs Company, the publisher of the whole family of MBTI works; CAPT (Center for Applications of Psychological Type), which holds all of Myers’ and McCaulley’s original work; and the MBTI Trust, headed by Katharine and Peter Myers. Step III was advertised as addressing type development and the use of perception and judgment by respondents.

Precepts and ethics

These precepts are generally used in the ethical administration of the MBTI:

Type not trait
The MBTI sorts for type; it does not indicate the strength of ability. It allows the clarity of a preference to be ascertained (Bill clearly prefers introversion), but not the strength of preference (Jane strongly prefers extraversion) or degree of aptitude (Harry is good at thinking). In this sense, it differs from trait-based tools such as 16PF. Type preferences are polar opposites: a precept of MBTI is that people fundamentally prefer one thing over the other, not a bit of both.
Own best judge
People are considered the best judge of their own type. While the MBTI provides a Reported Type, this is considered only an indication of their probable overall Type. A Best Fit Process is usually used to allow respondents to develop their understanding of the four dichotomies, to form their own hypothesis as to their overall Type, and to compare this against the Reported Type. In more than 20% of cases, the hypothesis and the Reported Type differ in one or more dichotomies. Using the clarity of each preference, any potential for bias in the report, and often, a comparison of two or more whole Types may then help respondents determine their own Best Fit.
No right or wrong
No preference or total type is considered better or worse than another. They are all ‘Gifts Differing’, as emphasized by the title of Isabel Briggs Myers’ book on this subject.
Voluntary
Compelling anyone to take the MBTI is considered unethical. It should always be taken voluntarily.
Confidentiality
The result of the MBTI Reported and Best Fit type are confidential between the individual and administrator, and ethically, not for disclosure without permission.
Not for selection
The results of the assessment should not be used to “label, evaluate, or limit the respondent in any way” (emphasis original). Since all types are valuable, and the MBTI measures preferences rather than aptitude, the MBTI is not considered a proper instrument for purposes of employment selection. Many professions contain highly competent individuals of different types with complementary preferences.
Importance of proper feedback
People should always be given detailed feedback from a trained administrator and an opportunity to undertake a Best Fit exercise to check against their Reported Type. This feedback can be given in person, by telephone or electronically.

This is one of the most important aspects to consider for ensuring type-match accuracy. Lacking this component, many users end up mistyping, by at least one character. This is especially true of assessments offered for free online by third party providers.

Failing to inform users that the MBTI is premised on a best-match system, based on user input and decision-making, increases the likelihood that users will obtain an inaccurate type matching. When this happens, users are more likely to disregard the results or find the test of little effect or usefulness.


Type dynamics and development

The interaction of two, three, or four preferences is known as “type dynamics”. Although type dynamics has received little or no empirical support to substantiate its viability as a scientific theory,Myers and Briggs asserted that for each of the 16 four-preference types, one function is the most dominant and is likely to be evident earliest in life. A secondary or auxiliary function typically becomes more evident (differentiated) during teenaged years and provides balance to the dominant. In normal development, individuals tend to become more fluent with a third, tertiary function during mid-life, while the fourth, inferior function remains least consciously developed. The inferior function is often considered to be more associated with the unconscious, being most evident in situations such as high stress (sometimes referred to as being “in the grip” of the inferior function).

However, the use of type dynamics is disputed: in the conclusion of various studies on the subject of type dynamics, James H. Reynierse writes, “Type dynamics has persistent logical problems and is fundamentally based on a series of category mistakes; it provides, at best, a limited and incomplete account of type related phenomena”; and “type dynamics relies on anecdotal evidence, fails most efficacy tests, and does not fit the empirical facts”. His studies gave the clear result that the descriptions and workings of type dynamics do not fit the real behavior of people. He suggests getting completely rid of type dynamics, because it does not help, but hinders understanding of personality. The presumed order of functions 1 to 4 did only occur in one out of 540 test results.

The sequence of differentiation of dominant, auxiliary, and tertiary functions through life is termed type development. This is an idealized sequence that may be disrupted by major life events.

The sequence of differentiation of dominant, auxiliary, and tertiary functions through life is termed type development. This is an idealized sequence that may be disrupted by major life events.

The dynamic sequence of functions and their attitudes can be determined in the following way:

  • The overall lifestyle preference (J-P) determines whether the judging (T-F) or perceiving (S-N) preference is most evident in the outside world; i.e., which function has an extraverted attitude
  • The attitude preference (E-I) determines whether the extraverted function is dominant or auxiliary
  • For those with an overall preference for extraversion, the function with the extraverted attitude will be the dominant function. For example, for an ESTJ type the dominant function is the judging function, thinking, and this is experienced with an extraverted attitude. This is notated as a dominant Te. For an ESTP, the dominant function is the perceiving function, sensing, notated as a dominant Se.
  • The auxiliary function for extraverts is the secondary preference of the judging or perceiving functions, and it is experienced with an introverted attitude: for example, the auxiliary function for ESTJ is introverted sensing (Si) and the auxiliary for ESTP is introverted thinking (Ti).
  • For those with an overall preference for introversion, the function with the extraverted attitude is the auxiliary; the dominant is the other function in the main four letter preference. So the dominant function for ISTJ is introverted sensing (Si) with the auxiliary (supporting) function being extraverted thinking (Te).
  • The tertiary function is the opposite preference from the auxiliary. For example, if the Auxiliary is thinking then the Tertiary would be feeling. The attitude of the tertiary is the subject of some debate and therefore is not normally indicated; i.e. if the auxiliary was Te then the tertiary would be F (not Fe or Fi). Jung and Myers considered the attitude of the Auxiliary, Tertiary, and Inferior functions to be the opposite of the Dominant. In this interpretation, if the Dominant function is extraverted, then the other three are introverted, and vice versa. However, many modern practitioners hold that the attitude of the Tertiary function is the same as the Dominant.
  • The inferior function is the opposite preference and attitude from the Dominant, so for an ESTJ with dominant Te the inferior would be Fi.

Note that for extraverts, the dominant function is the one most evident in the external world. For introverts, however, it is the auxiliary function that is most evident externally, as their dominant function relates to the interior world.

Some examples of whole types may clarify this further. Taking the ESTJ example above:

  • Extraverted function is a judging function (T-F) because of the overall J preference
  • Extraverted function is dominant because of overall E preference
  • Dominant function is therefore extraverted thinking (Te)
  • Auxiliary function is the preferred perceiving function: introverted sensing (Si)
  • Tertiary function is the opposite of the Auxiliary: intuition (N)
  • Inferior function is the opposite of the Dominant: introverted feeling (Fi)

The dynamics of the ESTJ are found in the primary combination of extraverted thinking as their dominant function and introverted sensing as their auxiliary function: the dominant tendency of ESTJs to order their environment, to set clear boundaries, to clarify roles and timetables, and to direct the activities around them is supported by their facility for using past experience in an ordered and systematic way to help organize themselves and others. For instance, ESTJs may enjoy planning trips for groups of people to achieve some goal or to perform some culturally uplifting function. Because of their ease in directing others and their facility in managing their own time, they engage all the resources at their disposal to achieve their goals. However, under prolonged stress or sudden trauma, ESTJs may overuse their extraverted thinking function and fall into the grip of their inferior function, introverted feeling. Although the ESTJ can seem insensitive to the feelings of others in their normal activities, under tremendous stress, they can suddenly express feelings of being unappreciated or wounded by insensitivity.

Looking at the diametrically opposite four-letter type, INFP:

  • Extraverted function is a perceiving function (S-N) because of the P preference
  • Introverted function is dominant because of the I preference
  • Dominant function is therefore introverted feeling (Fi)
  • Auxiliary function is extraverted intuition (Ne)
  • Tertiary function is the opposite of the Auxiliary: sensing (S)
  • Inferior function is the opposite of the Dominant: extraverted thinking (Te)

The dynamics of the INFP rest on the fundamental correspondence of introverted feeling and extraverted intuition. The dominant tendency of the INFP is toward building a rich internal framework of values and toward championing human rights. They often devote themselves behind the scenes to causes such as civil rights or saving the environment. Since they tend to avoid the limelight, postpone decisions, and maintain a reserved posture, they are rarely found in executive-director-type positions of the organizations that serve those causes. Normally, the INFP dislikes being “in charge” of things. When not under stress, the INFP radiates a pleasant and sympathetic demeanor, but under extreme stress, they can suddenly become rigid and directive, exerting their extraverted thinking erratically.

Every type, and its opposite, is the expression of these interactions, which give each type its unique, recognizable signature.

 

Cognitive learning styles

The test is scored by evaluating each answer in terms of what it reveals about the taker. Each question is relevant to one of the following cognitive learning styles. Each is not a polar opposite, but a gradual continuum.

Extraversion/Introversion

The extraverted types learn best by talking and interacting with others. By interacting with the physical world, extraverts can process and make sense of new information. The introverted types prefer quiet reflection and privacy. Information processing occurs for introverts as they explore ideas and concepts internally.

Sensing/Intuition

The second continuum reflects what people focus their attentions on. Sensing types are good at concrete and tangible things. Intuitive types are good at abstract things and ideas. Sensing types might enjoy a learning environment in which the material is presented in a detailed and sequential manner. Sensing types often attend to what is occurring in the present, and can move to the abstract after they have established a concrete experience. Intuitive types might prefer a learning atmosphere in which an emphasis is placed on meaning and associations. Insight is valued higher than careful observation, and pattern recognition occurs naturally for intuitive types.

Thinking/Feeling

The third continuum reflects a person’s decision preferences. Thinking types desire objective truth and logical principles and are natural at deductive reasoning. Feeling types place an emphasis on issues and causes that can be personalized while they consider other people’s motives.

Judging/Perceiving

The fourth continuum reflects how a person regards complexity. Judging types tend to have a structured way or theory to approach the world. Perceiving types tend to be unstructured and keep options open. Judging types will always try to make accommodation between new information and their structured world, which might only be changed with discretion. Perceiving types will be more willing to change without having a prior structured world.

 

MBTI Step II

MBTI Step II is an extended version of the Myers–Briggs Type Indicator. Step II provides additional depth and clarification within each of the four original MBTI preference pairs or “dichotomies”.

Isabel Briggs Myers had noted that people with any given type shared differences as well as similarities. At the time of her death she was developing a more in-depth method to offer clues about how each person expresses and experiences their type pattern, which is called MBTI Step II. In the 1980s, Kathy Myers and Peter Myers developed a team of type experts, and a factor analysis was conducted.This resulted in the identification of five subscales (with corresponding pairs of facets each) for each of the four MBTI scales.

 

Extraverting
  • Initiating
  • Expressive
  • Gregarious
  • Active
  • Enthusiastic
Sensing
  • Concrete
  • Realistic
  • Practical
  • Experiential
  • Traditional
Thinking
  • Logical
  • Reasonable
  • Questioning
  • Critical
  • Tough
Judging
  • Systematic
  • Planful
  • Early Starting
  • Scheduled
  • Methodical
Introverting
  • Receiving
  • Contained
  • Intimate
  • Reflective
  • Quiet
Intuiting
  • Abstract
  • Imaginative
  • Conceptual
  • Theoretical
  • Original
Feeling
  • Empathetic
  • Compassionate
  • Accommodating
  • Accepting
  • Tender
Perceiving
  • Casual
  • Open-ended
  • Prompted
  • Spontaneous
  • Emergent

These break down the uniqueness of individuals into greater detail, by bringing to light the subtle nuances of personality type; thus avoiding the reduction of all of personality to just the 16 types.

 

Concepts

There are a number of new concepts introduced in Step II that are not part of MBTI Step I, including:-

  • Each of the original four preference pairs (dichotomies) is broken down into five “facets”. Whilst the facets reflect different aspects of the main dichotomy, they do not combine to the whole of the original preference. In other words, you can not say that, for example, a preference for Thinking over Feeling is simply a combination of the five Thinking facets (logical, reasonable, questioning, critical and tough).
  • Whilst in MBTI Step I, each of the preference pairs is considered to be a polar opposite, some of the Step II facets are more “trait- like” – i.e. there may be degrees of strength or aptitude.
  • Any individual taking Step II is likely to find some of the facets to be aligned to the overall preference (in preference, e.g. preference for the Logical facet and an overall Thinking preference); others may be more flexible or variable (mid zone, e.g. no clear preference for either the Concrete or Abstract facet despite an overall Intuition preference); and there may be some facets that are opposite to the overall preference (out of preference, also called “OOPS”, e.g. a preference for the Intimate over the Gregarious facet despite an overall Extraversion preference)

Applications

MBTI Step II can be used in the same applications areas as MBTI Step I, for example, coaching, team dynamics and relationship counselling.

It is particularly used in one-to-one executive coaching and in working with teams who have already had some exposure to MBTI Step I. It is also useful in helping individuals to clarify their MBTI Step I “best fit type”.

 

 

Mayers-Briggs Type Indicator ( MBTI )